Bitter gourd breeding programs and varietal development are predominantly conducted in Asian countries. However, both hybrid and open-pollinated varieties of bitter gourd are available worldwide. Hybrid seeds are known for their higher yields but are more expensive due to their inability to be replanted, with their prices often controlled by seed companies. The successful cultivation of bitter gourd, regardless of the variety chosen, requires the implementation of improved and modern production technologies. Unlike hybrids, open-pollinated bitter gourd varieties can be saved and used for future plantings and breeding. Farmers cultivate a range of cultivars and varieties with variations in size, shape, color, yield, bitterness, maturity, and resistance to pests and diseases.
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